FFH(LEGAL) - STUDENT WELFARE: FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION, HARASSMENT, AND RETALIATION
Note: The following legal provisions address dating violence and sexual harassment. For legal provisions addressing discrimination on the basis of disability, sex, and other protected characteristics, see FB.
A district shall adopt and implement a dating violence policy to be included in the district improvement plan.
A dating violence policy must:
- Include a definition of dating violence that includes the intentional use of physical, sexual, verbal, or emotional abuse by a person to harm, threaten, intimidate, or control another person in a dating relationship, as defined by Family Code 71.0021; and
- Address safety planning, enforcement of protective orders, school-based alternatives to protective orders, training for teachers and administrators at each district campus that instructs students in grade 6 or higher, counseling for affected students, and awareness education for students and parents.
Education Code 37.083, .0831 [See BQ]
Note: References to Title IX, part, or subpart in the following legal provisions refer to Title IX and its corresponding regulations.
The U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights has issued a formal interpretation that discrimination on the basis of sex under Title IX includes discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity.
A district may develop and implement a sexual harassment policy to be included in the district improvement plan. Education Code 37.083 [See BQ]
Sexual abuse of a student by an employee, when there is a connection between the physical sexual activity and the employee's duties and obligations as a district employee, violates a student's constitutional right to bodily integrity. Sexual abuse may include fondling, sexual assault, or sexual intercourse. U.S. Const. Amend. 14; Doe v. Taylor Indep. Sch. Dist., 15 F.3d 443 (5th Cir. 1994)
A district's treatment of a complainant or a respondent in response to a formal complaint of sexual harassment may constitute discrimination on the basis of sex under Title IX. 34 C.F.R. 106.45; 20 U.S.C. 1681 [See also FB regarding Title IX]
Designation of Title IX Coordinator
A district must designate and authorize at least one employee to coordinate its efforts to comply with its responsibilities under Title IX, which employee must be referred to as the "Title IX Coordinator."
Parties Entitled to Notice
The district must notify applicants for admission and employment, students, parents or legal guardians, employees, and all professional organizations holding professional agreements with the district ("Parties Entitled to Notice") of the name or title, office address, electronic mail address, and telephone number of the employee or employees designated as the Title IX Coordinator.
34 C.F.R. 106.8(a)
Any person may report sex discrimination, including sexual harassment (whether or not the person reporting is the person alleged to be the victim of conduct that could constitute sex discrimination or sexual harassment), in person, by mail, by telephone, or by electronic mail, using the contact information listed for the Title IX Coordinator, or by any other means that results in the Title IX Coordinator receiving the person's verbal or written report. Such a report may be made at any time (including during nonbusiness hours) by using the telephone number or electronic mail address, or by mail to the office address, listed for the Title IX Coordinator.
Notification of Policy
A district must notify the Parties Entitled to Notice, above, that the district does not discriminate on the basis of sex in the education program or activity that it operates, and that it is required by Title IX not to discriminate in such a manner. The notification must state that the requirement not to discriminate in the education program or activity extends to employment, and that inquiries about the application of Title IX to such district may be referred to the district's Title IX Coordinator, to the assistant secretary for civil rights of the Department of Education, or both.
34 C.F.R. 106.2(d), .8(b)(1)
A district must prominently display the contact information required to be listed for the Title IX Coordinator and the nondiscrimination policy described at Notification of Policy, above, on its website, if any, and in each handbook that it makes available to the Parties Entitled to Notice, above.
A district must not use or distribute a publication stating that the district treats applicants, students, or employees differently on the basis of sex except as such treatment is permitted by Title IX.
34 C.F.R. 106.8(b)(2)
Note: To distinguish the process described below from the District's general grievance policies [see DGBA, FNG, and GF], this policy refers to the grievance process required by Title IX regulations for responding to formal complaints of sexual harassment as the District's "Title IX formal complaint process."
A district must adopt and publish procedures that provide for the prompt and equitable resolution of student and employee complaints alleging any action that would be prohibited by Title IX and a Title IX formal complaint process that complies with 34 C.F.R. 106.45 for formal complaints as defined below.
A district must provide notice to the Parties Entitled to Notice, above, of the district's procedures and Title IX formal complaint process, including how to report or file a complaint of sex discrimination, how to report or file a formal complaint of sexual harassment, and how the district will respond.
The requirements of this provision apply only to sex discrimination occurring against a person in the United States.
34 C.F.R. 106.8(c)–(d)
Response to Sexual Harassment
"Actual knowledge" means notice of sexual harassment or allegations of sexual harassment to a district's Title IX Coordinator or any official of the district who has authority to institute corrective measures on behalf of the district, or to any employee of an elementary and secondary school. Imputation of knowledge based solely on vicarious liability or constructive notice is insufficient to constitute actual knowledge. This standard is not met when the only official of the district with actual knowledge is the respondent. The mere ability or obligation to report sexual harassment or to inform a student about how to report sexual harassment, or having been trained to do so, does not qualify an individual as one who has authority to institute corrective measures on behalf of the district. "Notice" as used in this paragraph includes, but is not limited to, a report of sexual harassment to the Title IX Coordinator.
"Complainant" means an individual who is alleged to be the victim of conduct that could constitute sexual harassment.
"Consent" is not defined by the Title IX regulations, nor do the regulations require districts to adopt a particular definition of consent with respect to sexual assault.
"Formal complaint" means a document filed by a complainant or signed by the Title IX Coordinator alleging sexual harassment against a respondent and requesting that the district investigate the allegation of sexual harassment. At the time of filing a formal complaint, a complainant must be participating in or attempting to participate in the education program or activity of the district with which the formal complaint is filed. A formal complaint may be filed with the Title IX Coordinator in person, by mail, or by electronic mail, by using the contact information required to be listed for the Title IX Coordinator, and by any additional method designated by the district. As used in this paragraph, the phrase "document filed by a complainant" means a document or electronic submission (such as by electronic mail or through an online portal provided for this purpose by the district) that contains the complainant's physical or digital signature, or otherwise indicates that the complainant is the person filing the formal complaint. Where the Title IX Coordinator signs a formal complaint, the Title IX Coordinator is not a complainant or otherwise a party to a Title IX formal complaint, and must comply with the requirements of the Title IX formal complaint process, including the informal resolution process.
"Respondent" means an individual who has been reported to be the perpetrator of conduct that could constitute sexual harassment.
"Sexual harassment" means conduct on the basis of sex that satisfies one or more of the following:
- An employee of the district conditioning the provision of an aid, benefit, or service of the district on an individual's participation in unwelcome sexual conduct;
- Unwelcome conduct determined by a reasonable person to be so severe, pervasive, and objectively offensive that it effectively denies a person equal access to the district's education program or activity; or
- "Sexual assault" as defined in 20 U.S.C. 1092(f)(6)(A)(v), "dating violence" as defined in 34 U.S.C. 12291(a)(10), "domestic violence" as defined in 34 U.S.C. 12291(a)(8), or "stalking" as defined in 34 U.S.C. 12291(a)(30).
"Supportive measures" means nondisciplinary, nonpunitive individualized services offered as appropriate, as reasonably available, and without fee or charge to the complainant or the respondent before or after the filing of a formal complaint or where no formal complaint has been filed. Such measures are designed to restore or preserve equal access to the district's education program or activity without unreasonably burdening the other party, including measures designed to protect the safety of all parties or the district's educational environment, or deter sexual harassment. Supportive measures may include counseling, extensions of deadlines or other course-related adjustments, modifications of work or class schedules, campus escort services, mutual restrictions on contact between the parties, changes in work or district-provided housing locations, leaves of absence, increased security and monitoring of certain areas of the campus, and other similar measures. The district must maintain as confidential any supportive measures provided to the complainant or respondent, to the extent that maintaining such confidentiality would not impair the ability of the district to provide the supportive measures. The Title IX Coordinator is responsible for coordinating the effective implementation of supportive measures.
34 C.F.R. 106.2, .30(a)
A district with actual knowledge of sexual harassment in an education program or activity of the district against a person in the United States, must respond promptly in a manner that is not deliberately indifferent. A district is deliberately indifferent only if its response to sexual harassment is clearly unreasonable in light of the known circumstances.
Education Program or Activity
For the purposes of 34 C.F.R. 106.30 [see Definitions, above] and 106.45 [see Process for Title IX Formal Complaint, below], "education program or activity" includes locations, events, or circumstances over which the district exercised substantial control over both the respondent and the context in which the sexual harassment occurs.
34 C.F.R. 106.44(a)
Title IX Coordinator Response
The Title IX Coordinator must promptly contact the complainant to discuss the availability of supportive measures, consider the complainant's wishes with respect to supportive measures, inform the complainant of the availability of supportive measures with or without the filing of a formal complaint, and explain to the complainant the process for filing a formal complaint. The Title IX Coordinator must respond in this manner with or without a formal complaint. 34 C.F.R. 106.44(b)(1)
Supportive Measures Required
A district's response must treat complainants and respondents equitably by offering supportive measures and by following a process that complies with 34 C.F.R. 106.45 [see Process for Title IX Formal Complaint, below] before the imposition of any disciplinary sanctions or other actions that are not supportive measures against a respondent. [For Emergency Removal procedures, see below.]
The Department of Education may not deem a district to have satisfied the district's duty to not be deliberately indifferent under Title IX based on the district's restriction of rights protected under the U.S. Constitution, including the First Amendment, Fifth Amendment, and Fourteenth Amendment.
34 C.F.R. 106.44(a)
Response to a Formal Complaint
In response to a formal complaint, a district must follow a process that complies with 34 C.F.R. 106.45 [see Process for Title IX Formal Complaint, below]. 34 C.F.R. 106.44(b)(1)
The Title IX regulations do not preclude a district from removing a respondent from the district's education program or activity on an emergency basis, provided that the district:
- Undertakes an individualized safety and risk analysis;
- Determines that an immediate threat to the physical health or safety of any student or other individual arising from the allegations of sexual harassment justifies removal; and
- Provides the respondent with notice and an opportunity to challenge the decision immediately following the removal.
This provision may not be construed to modify any rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, or the Americans with Disabilities Act.
34 C.F.R. 106.44(c)
The Title IX regulations do not preclude a district from placing a nonstudent employee respondent on administrative leave during the pendency of a Title IX formal complaint. This provision may not be construed to modify any rights under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 or the Americans with Disabilities Act. 34 C.F.R. 106.44(d)
Process for Title IX Formal Complaint
For the purpose of addressing formal complaints of sexual harassment, a district's process must comply with the following requirements. Any provisions, rules, or practices other than those required by this provision that a district adopts as part of its process for handling formal complaints of sexual harassment must apply equally to both parties. 34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)
A district's Title IX formal complaint process must:
- Treat complainants and respondents equitably by providing remedies to a complainant where a determination of responsibility for sexual harassment has been made against the respondent, and by following a process that complies with the Title IX regulations before the imposition of any disciplinary sanctions or other actions that are not supportive measures against a respondent. Remedies must be designed to restore or preserve equal access to the district's education program or activity. Such remedies may include the same individualized services described as supportive measures; however, remedies need not be nondisciplinary or nonpunitive and need not avoid burdening the respondent;
- Require an objective evaluation of all relevant evidence—including both inculpatory and exculpatory evidence—and provide that credibility determinations may not be based on a person's status as a complainant, respondent, or witness;
- Require that any individual designated by a district as a Title IX Coordinator, investigator, decision-maker, or any person designated by a district to facilitate an informal resolution process, not have a conflict of interest or bias for or against complainants or respondents generally or an individual complainant or respondent. A district must ensure that Title IX Coordinators, investigators, decision-makers, and any person who facilitates an informal resolution process, receive training on the definition of sexual harassment, the scope of the district's education program or activity, how to conduct an investigation and Title IX formal complaint process including hearings, appeals, and informal resolution processes, as applicable, and how to serve impartially, including by avoiding prejudgment of the facts at issue, conflicts of interest, and bias. A district must ensure that decision-makers receive training on any technology to be used at a live hearing, if any, and on issues of relevance of questions and evidence, including when questions and evidence about the complainant's sexual predisposition or prior sexual behavior are not relevant. [See Hearings, below] A district also must ensure that investigators receive training on issues of relevance to create an investigative report that fairly summarizes relevant evidence. [See Investigation of a Formal Complaint, below] Any materials used to train Title IX Coordinators, investigators, decision-makers, and any person who facilitates an informal resolution process, must not rely on sex stereotypes and must promote impartial investigations and adjudications of formal complaints of sexual harassment;
- Include a presumption that the respondent is not responsible for the alleged conduct until a determination regarding responsibility is made at the conclusion of the Title IX formal complaint process;
- Include reasonably prompt time frames for conclusion of the Title IX formal complaint process, including reasonably prompt time frames for filing and resolving appeals and informal resolution processes if the district offers informal resolution processes, and a process that allows for the temporary delay of the Title IX formal complaint process or the limited extension of time frames for good cause with written notice to the complainant and the respondent of the delay or extension and the reasons for the action. Good cause may include considerations such as the absence of a party, a party's advisor, or a witness; concurrent law enforcement activity; or the need for language assistance or accommodation of disabilities;
- Describe the range of possible disciplinary sanctions and remedies or list the possible disciplinary sanctions and remedies that the district may implement following any determination of responsibility;
- State whether the standard of evidence to be used to determine responsibility is the preponderance of the evidence standard or the clear and convincing evidence standard, apply the same standard of evidence for formal complaints against students as for formal complaints against employees, including faculty, and apply the same standard of evidence to all formal complaints of sexual harassment;
- Include the procedures and permissible bases for the complainant and respondent to appeal;
- Describe the range of supportive measures available to complainants and respondents; and
- Not require, allow, rely upon, or otherwise use questions or evidence that constitute, or seek disclosure of, information protected under a legally recognized privilege, unless the person holding such privilege has waived the privilege.
34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(1)
Notice of Allegations
Upon receipt of a formal complaint, a district must provide the following written notice to the parties who are known:
- Notice of the district's Title IX formal complaint process, including any informal resolution process.
- Notice of the allegations of sexual harassment potentially constituting sexual harassment, including sufficient details known at the time and with sufficient time to
prepare a response before any initial interview. Sufficient details include:
- The identities of the parties involved in the incident, if known;
- The conduct allegedly constituting sexual harassment; and
- The date and location of the alleged incident, if known.
The written notice must include a statement that the respondent is presumed not responsible for the alleged conduct and that a determination regarding responsibility is made at the conclusion of the Title IX formal complaint process. The written notice must inform the parties that they may have an advisor of their choice, who may be, but is not required to be, an attorney and may inspect and review evidence [see Investigation of a Formal Complaint, below]. The written notice must inform the parties of any provision in the district's code of conduct that prohibits knowingly making false statements or knowingly submitting false information during the Title IX formal complaint process.
If, in the course of an investigation, the district decides to investigate allegations about the complainant or respondent that are not included in the Notice of Allegations, above, the district must provide notice of the additional allegations to the parties whose identities are known.
34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(2)
Dismissal of a Formal Complaint
The district must investigate the allegations in a formal complaint. If the conduct alleged in the formal complaint would not constitute sexual harassment even if proved, did not occur in the district's education program or activity, or did not occur against a person in the United States, then the district must dismiss the formal complaint with regard to that conduct for purposes of sexual harassment under Title IX; such a dismissal does not preclude action under another provision of the district's code of conduct.
The district may dismiss the formal complaint or any allegations therein, if at any time during the investigation or hearing: a complainant notifies the Title IX Coordinator in writing that the complainant would like to withdraw the formal complaint or any allegations therein; the respondent is no longer enrolled or employed by the district; or specific circumstances prevent the district from gathering evidence sufficient to reach a determination as to the formal complaint or allegations therein.
Upon a dismissal required or permitted pursuant to 34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(3), the district must promptly send written notice of the dismissal and reason(s) therefor simultaneously to the parties.
Consolidation of Formal Complaints
A district may consolidate formal complaints as to allegations of sexual harassment against more than one respondent, or by more than one complainant against one or more respondents, or by one party against the other party, where the allegations of sexual harassment arise out of the same facts or circumstances. Where a Title IX formal complaint process involves more than one complainant or more than one respondent, references in this provision to the singular "party," "complainant," or "respondent" include the plural, as applicable.
34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(3)–(4)
Investigation of a Formal Complaint
When investigating a formal complaint and throughout the Title IX formal complaint process, a district must:
- Ensure that the burden of proof and the burden of gathering evidence sufficient to reach a determination regarding responsibility rest on the district and not on the parties provided that the district cannot access, consider, disclose, or otherwise use a party's records that are made or maintained by a physician, psychiatrist, psychologist, or other recognized professional or paraprofessional acting in the professional's or paraprofessional's capacity, or assisting in that capacity, and which are made and maintained in connection with the provision of treatment to the party, unless the district obtains that party's voluntary, written consent to do so for a Title IX formal complaint (if a party is not an "eligible student," as defined in 34 C.F.R. 99.3 then the district must obtain the voluntary, written consent of a "parent," as defined in 34 C.F.R. 99.3) [see FL(LEGAL) at Education Records];
- Provide an equal opportunity for the parties to present witnesses, including fact and expert witnesses, and other inculpatory and exculpatory evidence;
- Not restrict the ability of either party to discuss the allegations under investigation or to gather and present relevant evidence;
- Provide the parties with the same opportunities to have others present during any Title IX formal complaint proceeding, including the opportunity to be accompanied to any related meeting or proceeding by the advisor of their choice, who may be, but is not required to be, an attorney, and not limit the choice or presence of advisor for either the complainant or respondent in any meeting or Title IX formal complaint proceeding; however, the district may establish restrictions regarding the extent to which the advisor may participate in the proceedings, as long as the restrictions apply equally to both parties;
- Provide, to a party whose participation is invited or expected, written notice of the date, time, location, participants, and purpose of all hearings, investigative interviews, or other meetings, with sufficient time for the party to prepare to participate;
- Provide both parties an equal opportunity to inspect and review any evidence obtained as part of the investigation that is directly related to the allegations raised in a formal complaint, including the evidence upon which the district does not intend to rely in reaching a determination regarding responsibility and inculpatory or exculpatory evidence whether obtained from a party or other source, so that each party can meaningfully respond to the evidence prior to conclusion of the investigation. Prior to completion of the investigative report, the district must send to each party and the party's advisor, if any, the evidence subject to inspection and review in an electronic format or a hard copy, and the parties must have at least ten days to submit a written response, which the investigator will consider prior to completion of the investigative report. The district must make all such evidence subject to the parties' inspection and review available at any hearing to give each party equal opportunity to refer to such evidence during the hearing, including for purposes of cross-examination; and
- Create an investigative report that fairly summarizes relevant evidence and, at least ten days prior to a hearing (if a hearing is required or otherwise provided) or other time of determination regarding responsibility, send to each party and the party's advisor, if any, the investigative report in an electronic format or a hard copy, for their review and written response.
34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(5)
The district's Title IX formal complaint process may, but need not, provide for a hearing. With or without a hearing, after the district has sent the investigative report to the parties pursuant to 34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(5)(vii) [see Investigation of a Formal Complaint, above] and before reaching a determination regarding responsibility, the decision-maker(s) must afford each party the opportunity to submit written, relevant questions that a party wants asked of any party or witness, provide each party with the answers, and allow for additional, limited follow-up questions from each party. With or without a hearing, questions and evidence about the complainant's sexual predisposition or prior sexual behavior are not relevant, unless such questions and evidence about the complainant's prior sexual behavior are offered to prove that someone other than the respondent committed the conduct alleged by the complainant, or if the questions and evidence concern specific incidents of the complainant's prior sexual behavior with respect to the respondent and are offered to prove consent. The decision-maker(s) must explain to the party proposing the questions any decision to exclude a question as not relevant. 34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(6)(ii)
Determination Regarding Responsibility
The decision-maker(s), who cannot be the same person(s) as the Title IX Coordinator or the investigator(s), must issue a written determination regarding responsibility. To reach this determination, the district must apply the standard of evidence described at Process for Title IX Formal Complaint, above.
The written determination must include:
- Identification of the allegations potentially constituting sexual harassment;
- A description of the procedural steps taken from the receipt of the formal complaint through the determination, including any notifications to the parties, interviews with parties and witnesses, site visits, methods used to gather other evidence, and hearings held;
- Findings of fact supporting the determination;
- Conclusions regarding the application of the district's code of conduct to the facts;
- A statement of, and rationale for, the result as to each allegation, including a determination regarding responsibility, any disciplinary sanctions the district imposes on the respondent, and whether remedies designed to restore or preserve equal access to the district's education program or activity will be provided by the district to the complainant; and
- The district's procedures and permissible bases for the complainant and respondent to appeal.
The district must provide the written determination to the parties simultaneously. The determination regarding responsibility becomes final either on the date that the district provides the parties with the written determination of the result of the appeal, if an appeal is filed, or if an appeal is not filed, the date on which an appeal would no longer be considered timely.
34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(7)(i)–(ii)
Implementation of Remedies
The Title IX Coordinator is responsible for effective implementation of any remedies. 34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(7)(iv)
A district must offer both parties an appeal from a determination regarding responsibility, and from a district's dismissal of a formal complaint or any allegations therein, on the following bases:
- Procedural irregularity that affected the outcome of the matter;
- New evidence that was not reasonably available at the time the determination regarding responsibility or dismissal was made, that could affect the outcome of the matter; and
- The Title IX Coordinator, investigator(s), or decision-maker(s) had a conflict of interest or bias for or against complainants or respondents generally or the individual complainant or respondent that affected the outcome of the matter.
A district may offer an appeal equally to both parties on additional bases.
As to all appeals, the district must:
- Notify the other party in writing when an appeal is filed and implement appeal procedures equally for both parties;
- Ensure that the decision-maker(s) for the appeal is not the same person as the decision-maker(s) that reached the determination regarding responsibility or dismissal, the investigator(s), or the Title IX Coordinator;
- Ensure that the decision-maker(s) for the appeal complies with the standards in the Title IX regulations regarding conflict of interest and bias [see Process for Formal Title IX Complaint, item 3, above];
- Give both parties a reasonable, equal opportunity to submit a written statement in support of, or challenging, the outcome;
- Issue a written decision describing the result of the appeal and the rationale for the result; and
- Provide the written decision simultaneously to both parties.
34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(8)
A district may not require as a condition of enrollment or continuing enrollment, or employment or continuing employment, or enjoyment of any other right, waiver of the right to an investigation and adjudication of formal complaints of sexual harassment consistent with Title IX. Similarly, a district may not require the parties to participate in an informal resolution process and may not offer an informal resolution process unless a formal complaint is filed. However, at any time prior to reaching a determination regarding responsibility the district may facilitate an informal resolution process, such as mediation, that does not involve a full investigation and adjudication, provided that the district:
- Provides to the parties a written notice disclosing:
- The allegations;
- The requirements of the informal resolution process including the circumstances under which it precludes the parties from resuming a formal complaint arising from the same allegations, provided, however, that at any time prior to agreeing to a resolution, any party has the right to withdraw from the informal resolution process and resume the Title IX formal complaint process with respect to the formal complaint; and
- Any consequences resulting from participating in the informal resolution process, including the records that will be maintained or could be shared;
- Obtains the parties' voluntary, written consent to the informal resolution process; and
- Does not offer or facilitate an informal resolution process to resolve allegations that an employee sexually harassed a student.
34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(9)
A district must maintain for a period of seven years records of:
- Each sexual harassment investigation including any determination regarding responsibility, any disciplinary sanctions imposed on the respondent, and any remedies provided to the complainant designed to restore or preserve equal access to the district's education program or activity;
- Any appeal and the result therefrom;
- Any informal resolution and the result therefrom; and
- All materials used to train Title IX Coordinators, investigators, decision-makers, and any person who facilitates an informal resolution process. A district must make these training materials publicly available on its website or if the district does not maintain a website the district must make these materials available upon request for inspection by members of the public.
For each response required under Title IX Coordinator Response, above, a district must create, and maintain for a period of seven years, records of any actions, including any supportive measures, taken in response to a report or formal complaint of sexual harassment. In each instance, the district must document the basis for its conclusion that its response was not deliberately indifferent, and document that it has taken measures designed to restore or preserve equal access to the district's education program or activity.
If a district does not provide a complainant with supportive measures, then the district must document the reasons why such a response was not clearly unreasonable in light of the known circumstances. The documentation of certain bases or measures does not limit the district in the future from providing additional explanations or detailing additional measures taken.
34 C.F.R. 106.45(b)(10)
No district or other person may intimidate, threaten, coerce, or discriminate against any individual for the purpose of interfering with any right or privilege secured by Title IX, or because the individual has made a report or complaint, testified, assisted, or participated or refused to participate in any manner in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing under Title IX.
Intimidation, threats, coercion, or discrimination, including charges against an individual for code of conduct violations that do not involve sex discrimination or sexual harassment, but arise out of the same facts or circumstances as a report or complaint of sex discrimination, or a report or formal complaint of sexual harassment, for the purpose of interfering with any right or privilege secured by Title IX, constitutes retaliation.
Complaints alleging retaliation may be filed according to the Process for Title IX Formal Complaint above.
The exercise of rights protected under the First Amendment does not constitute retaliation prohibited by Title IX.
Charging an individual with a code of conduct violation for making a materially false statement in bad faith in the course of a Title IX formal complaint proceeding does not constitute retaliation prohibited by Title IX, provided, however, that a determination regarding responsibility, alone, is not sufficient to conclude that any party made a materially false statement in bad faith.
34 C.F.R. 106.71(a)–(b)
The district must keep confidential the identity of any individual who has made a report or complaint of sex discrimination, including any individual who has made a report or filed a formal complaint of sexual harassment, any complainant, any individual who has been reported to be the perpetrator of sex discrimination, any respondent, and any witness, except as may be permitted by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) statute, 20 U.S.C. 1232g, or FERPA regulations, 34 C.F.R. Part 99, or as required by law, or to carry out the purposes of 34 C.F.R. Part 106, including the conduct of any investigation, hearing, or judicial proceeding arising thereunder. 34 C.F.R. 106.71(a)